The Journal of Applied Economics and Business Studies (JAEBS) is an open access and double-blind peer reviewed journal launched under the flagship of Pakhtunkhwa Economic Policy Research InstituteAbdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan. JAEBS publishes original contributions in all fields of economics, business studies, tourism & hospitality management, and applied mathematics & economics. Authors are invited to submit original, full-length empirical and theoretical papers. JAEBS encourages the application of economic and business theories to research problems facing the public and private sectors. The journal prefers quantitative and empirical studies using methods of mathematics, statistics, econometrics and operations research helping in policy assessment, formulation and development.